Salmonella is a genus of small rod-shaped bacteria, furniture and gram negative, asporigeni and widespread in nature. Their name derives from the veterinary pathologist – Daniel Salmon – who first isolated the species Salmonella choleraesuis from the intestine of a pig.
The ingestion of food heavily contaminated with salmonella strains, causes food poisoning known as salmonellosis, characterized by abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhea. Some infectious agents, other than those covered in this article, are responsible for typhoid fever, common in developing countries, and the transmission of this disease can occur through contaminated food but also for direct contact between sick and carrier.
Since the incidence of salmonellosis is increasing in almost all industrialized countries, it is very important to adopt strict rules of a preventive nature. This phenomenon can be explained on the basis of various elements, such as the selection of antibiotic-resistant strains, the massive importation of meat and livestock with their introduction of serotypes other areas, the spread of factory farming, the use of animal meal and increased use of public catering.
Contagion and risk factors
The primary habitat of Salmonella is the intestinal tract of various animals, that eliminates outside the faces. Through the excrement issued by men, birds, reptiles and pets and breeding, Salmonella spread in the external environment, contaminating food and water.
Beyond the intestinal tract, Salmonella can also be present in other tissues, including meat. They multiply, for example, hen’s egg, contamination of the animal (spread of infection in the ovary) or porosity of the shell contaminated with fecal material. Even milk and seafood are considered unsafe food.
The salmonella infection is widespread, especially in the summer season and prefers communities such as hospitals, schools, colleges, nursing homes, barracks or other environments where you make catering.
Any food handled by people with poor hygiene and likely infected (clinically ill or asymptomatic carriers), it can be a source of infection. It is common, in particular, the so-called cross-contamination, for example between raw and cooked foods, including meats and vegetables, due to errors of handling and storage.